Sir Alama Mohammad Iqbal (1877–1938)

Poet, philosopher, and political leader
Brief Biography
Allama Iqbal was born at Silkot on November 9, 1877 and studied at Government College, Lahore, Cambridge, and the Univversity of Munich, and then he taught philosophy at Government College and practiced law. He was elected (1927) to the Punjab provincial legislature and served (1930) as president of the Muslim League. A staunch advocate of Indian nationalism, he became a supporter of an independent homeland for India's Muslims and he is regarded as the spiritual founder of Pakistan. Iqbal was the foremost Muslim thinker of his period, and in his many volumes of poetry (written in Urdu and Persian) and essays, he urged a regeneration of Islam through the love of God and the active development of the self. He was a firm believer in freedom and the creative force that freedom can exert on men. He was knighted in 1922. His works include The Secrets of the Self (1915), and Javid-nama (1934). Iqbal is the national poet of Pakistan.
He has in fact been called “the most serious Muslim philosophical thinker of modem times.” Iqbal is the best articulated Muslim response to Modernity that the Islamic world has produced in the 20th century. His response has three dimensions:
A creative engagement with the conceptual paradigm of modernism at a sophisticated philosophical level through his prose writings, mainly his The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam which presents his basic philosophic insights.
His Urdu and Persian poetry which is the best embodiment of poetically mediated thought, squarely in the traditional continuity of Islamic literature and perhaps the finest flowering of wisdom poetry, or contemplative poetry or inspired poetry in the modern times.
As a political activist/ social reformer― rising up to his social responsibility, his calling at a critical phase of history.
Iqbal and Rumi
Rumi is M. Iqbal’s great master whom he calls "Pīr-i Rūmī (The master from Anatolia); and he names himself as "Murīd-i- Hindī (The Indian disciple)." In his Asrār-o-Rumūz Iqbal claims, "The saint Rumi has changed my earth into an elixir and out of my dust has produced many splendours." It means that there is a great impact of Rumi on Iqbal’s spiritual teachings. When we study Rumi and Iqbal side by side, we find two bodies in one shirt. There are more than 250 poets in Turkey that follow the great master Rumi but Iqbal’s interpretations are the most up-to-date. It is Rumi’s Masnevi that seems to influence Iqbal the most. Great Persian poet Mulla Jāmī says this about Rumi’s Masnevi. "The Masnevi of the spiritual master (Rumi) is the Koran in Persian." This statement is very true. Thus many teachings of Iqbal depend on the Quran, directly or indirectly. The major theme of the Koran is ‘A Perfect Man’ or ‘Merd-i Mu’min’ and Muhammed (s.w) is the prototype for it. Muhammed (s.w) devoted his life for the betterment of human beings regardless of race or national discrimination; and killed his ego or selfhood for the love of God to set a unique example of character. Masnevi aims at this character. So do teachings of Iqbal. Rumi guides a man gradually from the lowest stage to the highest where he is finally submerged in the ocean of divine attributes. It is at this stage that a man becomes perfect, and understands the will of God. Here God loves the man and the man is pleased with God. Captivity of time, worldly worries and fate disappear. As Iqbal says: "Raise your self-being to the stage where God, before writing your fate may ask you tell me my beloved what is your will?" click here to read more from this article “Perfect Man in the Eyes of Rumi and Muhammad Iqbal” by Prof. Dr. Erkan Turkmen.

Further materials on Iqbal from the website of Iqbal Academy Pakistan

Iqbal in Turkish Media:

World Bulletin

Allama Iqbal: Pakistan's ideological founder

Muhammad Iqbal is a celebrated classical philosopher and politician whose vision inspired millions of people around the world. 
Sir Muhammad Iqbal, commonly known as Allama Iqbal, is a celebrated classical poet, philosopher and politician whose vision inspired millions of people – not only on the Indian subcontinent but around the world.Born November 9, 1877 to a middle-class family in Sialkot, a city that borders the Himalayan region of Kashmir, Iqbal is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu and Persian literature.His poetry was instrumental in awakening the Muslims of united India, while his active participation in politics ultimately led to the birth of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.Critics have divided Iqbal's poetry into three main phases.The first phase came before his journey to Europe in 1905 and reveals an Indian nationalist who saw the future of Muslims in a united India.His famous poem, "Hindi hain Hum watan hay Hindustan hamara," which roughly translates into "We are Indians and India is our homeland," remained the unofficial national anthem of India and the Congress – unified India's largest political party – for several years.During this phase, Iqbal was a full-fledged nationalist who separated religion from state."But soon, Iqbal's thinking started to change," Mumtaz Omer, a Karachi-based critic and expert on the Iqbaliat (the poetry of Iqbal), told Anadolu Agency."In one of his poems, he reminded the Barahimans [the elite priestly class in the Hindu caste system] that their idols had failed to serve humanity or the people," he noted.Iqbal says, "Kehdun main aye Barahamin gur tu bura na manay; Teray sanam kadon ka bhutt hogaye puranay," which roughly translates into: "Oh Brahamin, do not mind if I say truth; that the idols of your temples have gone old.""Here, 'idols' means ideas and vision," Omer explained."Iqbal soon came out of the clutches of nationalism," he added, "as he understood that conventional nationalism and Islam could not go together."Iqbal's poetry during this phase was a blend of color and objectivity, the critic said.The second phase of Iqbal's poetic journey began following his departure for England in 1905 after qualifying for a scholarship from Trinity College in Cambridge.In 1907, Iqbal moved to Germany where he earned his PhD from Munich's Ludwig Maximilian University one year later, writing his dissertation on "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia."During his studies in Europe, Iqbal began to write poetry in the Persian language, which, he said, was the easiest way to express his thoughts."During this phase, Iqbal appeared to be appreciative of the materialistic development and progress of Europe," said Omer."But the lack of spiritualism and a gradual disappearance of religion from their [Europeans'] lives brought a huge change in his thinking, which was ultimately reflected in his poetry and political views," he added."From there," the critic went on, "Iqbal moved in the quest of new horizons and ideas."IslamistAfter returning from Europe, Iqbal wrote almost all of his most celebrated books, which introduced new ideas and colors into Urdu- and Persian-language literature.This was considered Iqbal's most prolific period.His first book of poetry, Asrar-e-Khudi, appeared in Persian in 1915. Other poetry collections include Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, Payam-i-Mashriq and Zabur-i-Ajam.Among his best known works in Urdu are Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-Jibril, Zarb-i Kalim and a part of Armughan-e-Hijaz, a mixture of Urdu and Persian poetry.His poem Iblis ke Majlis-e-Shura ("Satan's Consultative Meeting") is widely considered one of his finest works."If you ask me to name one poem that has the potential to overshadow the whole literary work of Iqbal, it is Iblis ke Majlis-e-Shura," poet and critic Shahnawaz Faruqi told AA.In the poem, Satan frets about the love for Islam and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the hearts of the world's Muslims, both devout and otherwise."The rhythm in which the Devil and his disciples converse is the heart of this ever-green poem," Faruqi said.The period from 1908 to 1926 witnessed a number of political, social and economic developments on the subcontinent that had a profound impact on Iqbal."A former nationalist turned out to be a pan-Islamist during this era," said Omer. "For him, Islam was a complete religion on moral and political counts."Critics believe that the change in Indian politics – especially after the 1920s, when differences between Hindus and Muslims grew deeper – also had an impact on Iqbal's poetry and politics."Here, the Indian concept of nationalism and geograhpicalism became a rejected idea for Iqbal," suggested Omer.The critic added: "A [formerly] nationalist Iqbal says in [his poem], 'Taza Khudaon bara watan hay; Iska jo perahun hay wo muzhab ka kafan hay' ["Homeland is the newest God in this world; and His apparel is the shroud of religion]."PoliticianFrom 1926 to 1933, Iqbal focused on politics.Although he had joined the All India Muslim League in 1920s during his stay in Europe, he became more active in politics upon his return home.In November 1926, Iqbal was elected a member of Punjab's legislative assembly.He successfully persuaded Quaid-I-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, to return from London and take charge of the Muslim League.Iqbal saw Jinnah as the only person who, at that critical juncture, could lead India's Muslims.In his famous 1930 Illahabad speech, Iqbal promoted the idea of an independent Muslim state on the subcontinent."A separate federation of Muslim provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of non-Muslims," he had declared."Why should not the Muslims of northwest India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination, just as other nations in India and outside India are?" Iqbal asked the massive gathering.His dream became a reality in August 1947, with the creation of Pakistan as an independent Muslim state.For that, Iqbal – who died in Lahore on April 21, 1938 following a long illness – is celebrated as Pakistan's "ideological founder" and was soon after declared the new Muslim country's "national poet."
Source: World Bulletin, 9 November 2013
External link


25 Nisan 1915 Çanakkale’de Kara Savaşları’nın en ateşli geçtiği ve Anzaklar’ın yenildiği ve de Türk Milleti için zaferin müjdelendiği gündür. (Anzakların burada yaşadıkları yenilgiden dolayı, 25 Nisan’ı Milli tatil  olarak ilan etmişlerdir.  Ayrıca her yıl “Anzak Günü” adıyla Anzak Koyunda törenler düzenleyerek, şehitlerini anmaktadırlar.)

İşte Çanakkale'de savaşın en kızgın anlarının yaşandığı sıralarda, dünyanın öbür ucunda yani “Pak=temiz” insanların ülkesi Pakistan'ın (o tarihlerde Hindistan ile beraber) Lahor kentinde, en büyük alanlardan birinde, halkın büyük bir ilgi gösterdiği muhteşem bir miting düzenlenir. Miting de konuşan Muhammed İkbal’dır. Muhammed İkbal kimdir. Pakistan'ın Pencap eyaletine bağlı Siyalkut kentinde 1873'te doğan Muhammed İkbal, Pakistan’ın İngiliz sömürgesi olmaktan kurtulması için mücadeleyi başlatan kişilerden birisidir. En önemlisi ise Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nda İtilaf Devletleri’nin Osmanlı Devleti’ne vahşice saldırısını hazmedemeyen muhteşem insandır. Halifelik makamı olan Pay-i taht İstanbul yok olmasın diye tâ Pakistan’da Osmanlı’ya para ve gönüllü mücahit toplayan kişidir. Sonrasında Kurtuluş Savaşı yıllarında, Pakistan halkını, Türk milli mücadelesine destek vermek için örgütleyerek, milli mücadelede kullanılmak üzere Pakistan halkından toplanan paraların Ankara hükümetine yollanmasına öncülük etti. Dahası İkbal, milli mücadelede kullanılmak üzere Pakistan halkından 1,5 milyon sterlin toplayıp Ankara hükümetine yollatmıştır.

Gelelim o gün Lahor’da yapılan mitingin amacına; Çanakkale'de çarpışan Türklere yardım ve gönüllü toplamaktır. Halkın büyük çoğunluğunun fakir olmasına rağmen, meydanlara serilen yardım sergilerine, kulaklarındaki küpelerini, parmaklarındaki alyansları, evdeki eşyalarını satarak elde ettikleri paraları atarlar kadim dostlarımız.

Lahor’da başka bir heyecan daha vardır. Bu heyecan birazdan kürsüye gelecek olan adamdır. Bu adam, Allâme İkbal olarak tanınan Pakistan münevveri Muhammed İkbal’dir. Muhammed İkbal kürsüye gelir. Gözleri dolu doludur. Birkaç gün önce gördüğü rüyanın mahcubiyeti içerisindedir. Yaralı bir aslan edasıyla mikrofona yaklaşır ve halka hitaben, tarihe damga vuracak o meşhur şiirini okur ve der ki:

“Dedi Hz. Muhammed (A.S.)

Cihan bahçesinden bana bir koku gibi yaklaştın

Söyle bana ne gibi bir hediye getirdin?

Dedim: Ya Muhammed (A.S.) dünyada yok rahatlık

Bütün özlemlerimden umudu kestim artık

Varlık bahçesinde binlerce gül lale var

Ama ne renk, ne koku... Hepsi de vefasızdır

Yalnız bir şey getirdim kutlanmıştır tekbirlerle

Bir şişe kan ki eşi yoktur namusudur, vicdanıdır

Buyurun, bu Çanakkale şehidinin kanıdır.”

İkbal ile birlikte meydandaki herkes hüngür hüngür ağlamaktadır. Gönderilen maddi yardımların yanında bir de içten dualar ederler Çanakkale'deki kardeşlerine. İçlerinden bazıları son kuruşlarını da verdikleri yetmezmiş gibi cephede savaşmak üzere gönüllü yazılırlar. Bütün bunların hepsi bir yana sessizce gerçekleşen bir olay daha yaşanır o gün. Yürekleri parçalayan, işte inanç bu, kardeşlik bu dedirten olay şöyledir:

Meydandaki bu muhteşem mitinge kucağındaki yeni doğmuş bebeği ile iştirak eden bir anne, yeni dul kalmış ve verecek bir şeyi de olmadığından eziklik içerisinde kıvranmaktadır. Fakat birden hızlı ve emin adımlarla uzaklaşır oradan. Nihayetinde zengin bir efendinin konağının önünde durur. Kapıyı çalar ve efendi ile görüşmek istediğini söyler hizmetkarlara. Dilenci olduğunu düşünerek almak istemezler bu kadını. Fakat ısrar eder kadın ve çıkarırlar zengin efendinin karşısına. Efendi sorar ne istiyorsun diye.

Cevap verir kadın; "Bebeğimi sana satmak istiyorum."

O devir de hizmetçi olabilecek küçük yaşta çocuklar satılmaktadır. Fakat bu yeni doğmuş bir bebektir. Hangi anne, canından çok sevdiği yavrusunu ve hangi sebeple satmak istemektedir. Zengin efendi sorar ama cevap alamaz kadından. Merak eden efendi çocuğu alır. Parayı verir kadına ve takip etmelerini emreder hizmetkarlarına. Lahor'daki miting meydanına kadar takip ederler kadını. Çocuğunu satarak elde ettiği parayı kuruşuna kadar meydandaki sergiye bırakır kadın. Hizmetkarlar efendiye anlatırlar olayı. Şaşkınlık içerisinde kalan efendi, bulup getirin o kadını der. Bulur, huzuruna getirirler kadını. Efendi; sen söylemedin ama ben seni takip ettirdim ve paranı Çanakkale'ye gönderilmek üzere bağışladığını öğrendim. Bunu niçin yaptığını bana anlatmak zorundasın der.

Kadın, efendiye dönerek, işte İslam Kadını bu dedirtecek ve oradakileri yüreğinden vuracak sözleri söyler;

Şimdi sen diyorsun ki; Çanakkale'ye gönderilecek bir silah için koklamaya doyamadığın yavrunu niye sattın öyl emi? Osmanlı zayıf düştüğünden beridir, yanı başımıza kadar gelen İngilizlerin yaptığı zulümler ortada. Bugün Muhammed İkbal dedi ki; Eğer Osmanlı’nın son kalesi olan Çanakkale'de geçilirse, Hilafet kalmaz ve iyi bilin ki sıra sizdedir. Eğer İngiliz buraya da gelir, namusumuza el uzanır, bayrak iner, vatan toprağı düşmanın pis çizmeleri altında çiğnenirse, çocuğum olsa ne olur, olmasa ne olur. İşte bu yüzden hiç tereddüt etmeden sattım yavrumu. İngilizlere köle olacağına size hizmetkar olsun.

Anadolu kadınından farklı düşünmeyen bu Pakistanlı kadının duyarlılığından çok etkilenen zengin efendi dersini alır. Bu sözler üzerine, hizmetkarlarına derhal çocuğu kadına geri vermelerini emreder. Ardından yüklü bir miktar daha parayı miting meydanına gönderir.”

Yani; o gün dünyanın neresinde Türk ve Müslüman varsa Osmanlı’ya karşı yapılan bu haksızlığı durdurmak için elinden gelen her yardımı yapmaktan geri durmamıştır. Mehmetçik ise ona güvenen Müslüman dünyanın yüzünü güldürerek; dünya devletlerinin saldırısına rağmen başını dik tutmuştur.

Mehmet Akif’in dediği gibi,

Ne büyüksün ki kanın kurtarıyor Tevhid’i…

Bedr’in arslanları ancak, bu kadar şanlı idi.

Sana dar gelmeyecek makberi kimler kazsın?

“Gömelim gel seni tarihe” desem, sığmazsın. 

Unutulmasın ki; Çanakkale Zaferi dünyadaki bütün Türk ve Müslüman toplumlarının zaferidir.

External link:,38671.html  Önce Vatan Gazetesi

MÜTEFEKKİR DÜNYA - Muhammed İkbal  (TRT Diyanet)

Iqbal’s Poetry

"Tu Rah Naward-E-Shauq Hai; Manzil Na Kar Qabool" - By Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
“Sitaron se aage jahan aur b hain” by Ustad Rahat Fath Ali Khan

“Dil Soz say khali hai..”(ALLAMA IQBAL) Rahat Fateh Ali Khan

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